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继电器的测试方法

2021.03.23 浏览量: 字号:

继电器测试

①测触点(dian)电阻:用(yong)万(wan)用(yong)表的(de)电阻挡,测量常(chang)闭(bi)触点(dian)与(yu)动点(dian)电阻,其阻值(zhi)应为(wei)0;而常(chang)开触点(dian)与(yu)动点(dian)的(de)阻值(zhi)就为(wei)无(wu)穷大。由此(ci)可以(yi)区别出那个是常(chang)闭(bi)触点(dian),那个是常(chang)开触点(dian)。

②测(ce)线圈(quan)电(dian)阻(zu):可用万用表R×10挡测(ce)量继电(dian)器线圈(quan)的阻(zu)值,从而(er)判断(duan)该线圈(quan)是否(fou)存在着开路现象。

③测量吸(xi)(xi)合(he)电压(ya)和吸(xi)(xi)合(he)电流(liu):用可调稳压(ya)电源和电流(liu)表,给继电器输入一组(zu)电压(ya),且在供电回路中串入电流(liu)表进行监(jian)测。慢慢调高电源电压(ya),听到继电器吸(xi)(xi)合(he)的声(sheng)音时,记录吸(xi)(xi)合(he)电压(ya)和吸(xi)(xi)合(he)电流(liu)。为(wei)求准确,可以尝试多次求平均值。

④测量释(shi)放电压(ya)(ya)和释(shi)放电流:也是像上述那样连接测试(shi)(shi),当继(ji)电器发生吸(xi)(xi)合(he)后,再逐渐降低供电电压(ya)(ya),当听到继(ji)电器再次发生释(shi)放声音时,记下此时的(de)(de)电压(ya)(ya)和电流,亦可(ke)尝试(shi)(shi)多次而取得平均的(de)(de)释(shi)放电压(ya)(ya)和释(shi)放电流。一般情(qing)况下,继(ji)电器的(de)(de)释(shi)放电压(ya)(ya)为吸(xi)(xi)合(he)电压(ya)(ya)的(de)(de)10%~50%如果释(shi)放电压(ya)(ya)大小(小于1/10的(de)(de)吸(xi)(xi)合(he)电压(ya)(ya)),则不能正(zheng)常使用,这样会对电路的(de)(de)稳定性造(zao)成威胁,使工作不可(ke)靠(kao)。

继电器

继(ji)电(dian)器(图1)

继电器(qi)(qi)是智能(neng)(neng)(neng)预付费电能(neng)(neng)(neng)表(biao)(biao)中的(de)关键器(qi)(qi)件,继电器(qi)(qi)的(de)寿(shou)命在某种程度(du)上决定了(le)电表(biao)(biao)寿(shou)命,该器(qi)(qi)件性(xing)能(neng)(neng)(neng)好坏对智能(neng)(neng)(neng)预付费电能(neng)(neng)(neng)表(biao)(biao)运行至关重要。而国(guo)内、外继电器(qi)(qi)生产厂家(jia)众多,生产规模相差较大,技术(shu)水平相距悬(xuan)殊,性(xing)能(neng)(neng)(neng)参数千差万别(bie),因(yin)此,电能(neng)(neng)(neng)表(biao)(biao)生产厂家(jia)在继电器(qi)(qi)检(jian)(jian)(jian)测(ce)(ce)选型(xing)时必须有一套完(wan)善的(de)检(jian)(jian)(jian)测(ce)(ce)装(zhuang)置,以保(bao)(bao)证电表(biao)(biao)质量(liang)。同时,国(guo)家(jia)电网也加强了(le)智能(neng)(neng)(neng)电能(neng)(neng)(neng)表(biao)(biao)内继电器(qi)(qi)性(xing)能(neng)(neng)(neng)参数抽样(yang)检(jian)(jian)(jian)测(ce)(ce),同样(yang)需要相应的(de)检(jian)(jian)(jian)测(ce)(ce)设备,检(jian)(jian)(jian)验不同厂家(jia)生产的(de)电表(biao)(biao)质量(liang)。然而,继电器(qi)(qi)检(jian)(jian)(jian)测(ce)(ce)设备不仅检(jian)(jian)(jian)测(ce)(ce)项目(mu)比较单一,检(jian)(jian)(jian)测(ce)(ce)过程不能(neng)(neng)(neng)实现自动化(hua),检(jian)(jian)(jian)测(ce)(ce)数据需要人(ren)工(gong)处(chu)理和分析(xi),检(jian)(jian)(jian)测(ce)(ce)结(jie)果具有各种随机性(xing)、人(ren)为性(xing),而且,检(jian)(jian)(jian)测(ce)(ce)效(xiao)率低,安(an)全性(xing)也得不到保(bao)(bao)证 。

近(jin)两(liang)年来,国家电(dian)(dian)(dian)网逐步规范了电(dian)(dian)(dian)表技术要(yao)求,制定相关行业标准以及技术规范,这(zhei)为继电(dian)(dian)(dian)器(qi)参数检测(ce)提出了一些技术难(nan)题,如继电(dian)(dian)(dian)器(qi)的负载通(tong)断能力、开关特性(xing)测(ce)试等。因此,迫切需要(yao)研究一种设备(bei),实现继电(dian)(dian)(dian)器(qi)性(xing)能参数的综合检测(ce) 。

根据继电(dian)(dian)(dian)器性(xing)能(neng)参数测试(shi)要求,测试(shi)项(xiang)目(mu)可以(yi)分为两大(da)类,一是不带负载电(dian)(dian)(dian)流的测试(shi)项(xiang)目(mu),如(ru)动作值、触(chu)点接触(chu)电(dian)(dian)(dian)阻、机械寿命(ming);二(er)是带负载电(dian)(dian)(dian)流的测试(shi)项(xiang)目(mu),如(ru)触(chu)点接触(chu)电(dian)(dian)(dian)压、电(dian)(dian)(dian)寿命(ming)、过负荷能(neng)力。

主要测试项(xiang)目简单介绍如(ru)下(xia):(1)动作值。继(ji)电器(qi)(qi)动作时所需(xu)电压(ya)值。(2)触点(dian)(dian)接触电阻(zu)。触电闭合(he)时,两触头之间的电阻(zu)值。(3)机(ji)械(xie)寿命。机(ji)械(xie)部分在不损坏的情(qing)况下(xia),继(ji)电器(qi)(qi)反(fan)复开关动作次(ci)数(shu)。(4)触点(dian)(dian)接触电压(ya)。触电闭合(he)时,触电回路(lu)中施(shi)(shi)加(jia)(jia)(jia)一定负载电流,触点(dian)(dian)间电压(ya)值。(5)电寿命。继(ji)电器(qi)(qi)驱(qu)动线圈两端施(shi)(shi)加(jia)(jia)(jia)额定电压(ya),触点(dian)(dian)回路(lu)中施(shi)(shi)加(jia)(jia)(jia)额定阻(zu)性负载时,每小时循环小于(yu)300次(ci)、占空比1∶4条件下(xia),继(ji)电器(qi)(qi)的可(ke)靠动作次(ci)数(shu)。(6)过(guo)负荷能力(li)。继(ji)电器(qi)(qi)驱(qu)动线圈两端施(shi)(shi)加(jia)(jia)(jia)额定电压(ya),触点(dian)(dian)回路(lu)中施(shi)(shi)加(jia)(jia)(jia)1.5倍额定负载时,动作频率(10±1)次(ci)/分条件下(xia),继(ji)电器(qi)(qi)可(ke)靠动作次(ci)数(shu) 。

符号表示方法

继(ji)电(dian)(dian)器(qi)线圈(quan)(quan)在电(dian)(dian)路(lu)中(zhong)用一(yi)(yi)(yi)个长(zhang)方(fang)(fang)框符(fu)号(hao)表(biao)示,如果(guo)继(ji)电(dian)(dian)器(qi)有两(liang)个线圈(quan)(quan),就画(hua)两(liang)个并列(lie)的(de)(de)长(zhang)方(fang)(fang)框。同(tong)(tong)时在长(zhang)方(fang)(fang)框内(nei)或长(zhang)方(fang)(fang)框旁标上(shang)继(ji)电(dian)(dian)器(qi)的(de)(de)文字符(fu)号(hao)“J”。继(ji)电(dian)(dian)器(qi)的(de)(de)触(chu)点(dian)(dian)有两(liang)种(zhong)表(biao)示方(fang)(fang)法(fa):一(yi)(yi)(yi)种(zhong)是(shi)把(ba)它们直接画(hua)在长(zhang)方(fang)(fang)框一(yi)(yi)(yi)侧,这种(zhong)表(biao)示法(fa)较(jiao)为直观。另一(yi)(yi)(yi)种(zhong)是(shi)按照电(dian)(dian)路(lu)连(lian)接的(de)(de)需要,把(ba)各(ge)个触(chu)点(dian)(dian)分别(bie)画(hua)到(dao)各(ge)自的(de)(de)控制电(dian)(dian)路(lu)中(zhong),通常(chang)在同(tong)(tong)一(yi)(yi)(yi)继(ji)电(dian)(dian)器(qi)的(de)(de)触(chu)点(dian)(dian)与线圈(quan)(quan)旁分别(bie)标注上(shang)相(xiang)同(tong)(tong)的(de)(de)文字符(fu)号(hao),并将触(chu)点(dian)(dian)组(zu)编上(shang)号(hao)码(ma),以示区别(bie)。

继电器的触点有3种(zhong)基(ji)本形式:

(1)动(dong)合型(常开(kai),H型)线圈(quan)不通(tong)电时两触(chu)点(dian)是断(duan)开(kai)的,通(tong)电后两个触(chu)点(dian)闭合。以“合”字(zi)的拼音字(zi)头“H”表示。

(2)动断型(xing)(常(chang)闭,D型(xing))线圈不通电(dian)时两触点(dian)是闭合(he)的,通电(dian)后两个触点(dian)断开。用(yong)“断”字的拼(pin)音(yin)字头“D”表(biao)示(shi)。

(3)转(zhuan)换型(xing)(xing)(Z型(xing)(xing))是触点(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)组(zu)型(xing)(xing)。这种(zhong)触点(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)组(zu)共有3个(ge)(ge)触点(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian),即中间是动(dong)触点(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian),上下各一(yi)个(ge)(ge)静(jing)触点(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)。线圈不通电时,动(dong)触点(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)和其(qi)中一(yi)个(ge)(ge)静(jing)触点(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)断开(kai),和另一(yi)个(ge)(ge)闭(bi)合;线圈通电后,动(dong)触点(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)就(jiu)移动(dong),使原来断开(kai)的(de)(de)(de)呈闭(bi)合状(zhuang)态,原来闭(bi)合的(de)(de)(de)呈断开(kai)状(zhuang)态,达到转(zhuan)换的(de)(de)(de)目的(de)(de)(de)。这样(yang)的(de)(de)(de)触点(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)组(zu)称为转(zhuan)换触点(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)。用“转(zhuan)”字(zi)的(de)(de)(de)拼音(yin)字(zi)头“Z”表示。