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继电器种类举例

2021.03.22 浏览量: 字号:

继(ji)(ji)电(dian)(dian)器(qi)(qi)(qi)的种类很(hen)多,按输(shu)(shu)入量可分(fen)(fen)为(wei)(wei)电(dian)(dian)压继(ji)(ji)电(dian)(dian)器(qi)(qi)(qi)、电(dian)(dian)流继(ji)(ji)电(dian)(dian)器(qi)(qi)(qi)、时间继(ji)(ji)电(dian)(dian)器(qi)(qi)(qi)、速(su)度(du)继(ji)(ji)电(dian)(dian)器(qi)(qi)(qi)、压力继(ji)(ji)电(dian)(dian)器(qi)(qi)(qi)等,按工作原理(li)可分(fen)(fen)为(wei)(wei)电(dian)(dian)磁式继(ji)(ji)电(dian)(dian)器(qi)(qi)(qi)、感应式继(ji)(ji)电(dian)(dian)器(qi)(qi)(qi)、电(dian)(dian)动式继(ji)(ji)电(dian)(dian)器(qi)(qi)(qi)、电(dian)(dian)子式继(ji)(ji)电(dian)(dian)器(qi)(qi)(qi)等,按用(yong)途可分(fen)(fen)为(wei)(wei)控制继(ji)(ji)电(dian)(dian)器(qi)(qi)(qi)、保护继(ji)(ji)电(dian)(dian)器(qi)(qi)(qi)等,按输(shu)(shu)入量变化形(xing)式可分(fen)(fen)为(wei)(wei)有无继(ji)(ji)电(dian)(dian)器(qi)(qi)(qi)和量度(du)继(ji)(ji)电(dian)(dian)器(qi)(qi)(qi)。 

有(you)无(wu)继(ji)(ji)电器(qi)是根据输入量的有(you)或无(wu)来动(dong)作的,无(wu)输入量时继(ji)(ji)电器(qi)不动(dong)作,有(you)输入量时继(ji)(ji)电器(qi)动(dong)作,如中间继(ji)(ji)电器(qi)、通用(yong)继(ji)(ji)电器(qi)、时间继(ji)(ji)电器(qi)等。 

量(liang)度继(ji)电(dian)(dian)(dian)器(qi)(qi)是根据输入量(liang)的变化(hua)来动(dong)作的,工作时其(qi)输入量(liang)是一(yi)直存在的,只有(you)当输入量(liang)达到一(yi)定值时继(ji)电(dian)(dian)(dian)器(qi)(qi)才动(dong)作,如(ru)电(dian)(dian)(dian)流继(ji)电(dian)(dian)(dian)器(qi)(qi)、电(dian)(dian)(dian)压继(ji)电(dian)(dian)(dian)器(qi)(qi)、热继(ji)电(dian)(dian)(dian)器(qi)(qi)、速(su)度继(ji)电(dian)(dian)(dian)器(qi)(qi)、压力(li)继(ji)电(dian)(dian)(dian)器(qi)(qi)、液位继(ji)电(dian)(dian)(dian)器(qi)(qi)等。 

电磁式继电器

在控制电(dian)(dian)路中用(yong)的(de)继(ji)电(dian)(dian)器(qi)(qi)(qi)大(da)多数(shu)是电(dian)(dian)磁式继(ji)电(dian)(dian)器(qi)(qi)(qi)。电(dian)(dian)磁式继(ji)电(dian)(dian)器(qi)(qi)(qi)具有结(jie)构简(jian)单,价格低廉,使用(yong)维护方便,触(chu)(chu)点容量(liang)小(一般在SA以下),触(chu)(chu)点数(shu)量(liang)多且无(wu)主辅之分,无(wu)灭(mie)弧装置,体积(ji)小,动(dong)作迅速、准(zhun)确,控制灵敏、可(ke)靠等特点,广泛地应用(yong)于(yu)低压(ya)控制系统(tong)中。常用(yong)的(de)电(dian)(dian)磁式继(ji)电(dian)(dian)器(qi)(qi)(qi)有电(dian)(dian)流继(ji)电(dian)(dian)器(qi)(qi)(qi)、电(dian)(dian)压(ya)继(ji)电(dian)(dian)器(qi)(qi)(qi)、中间继(ji)电(dian)(dian)器(qi)(qi)(qi)以及各种小型通用(yong)继(ji)电(dian)(dian)器(qi)(qi)(qi)等。 

电(dian)(dian)磁(ci)式继(ji)电(dian)(dian)器(qi)(qi)的结构(gou)和(he)(he)工作原理与接(jie)触器(qi)(qi)的相似,主(zhu)要(yao)由电(dian)(dian)磁(ci)机(ji)构(gou)和(he)(he)触点组成。电(dian)(dian)磁(ci)式继(ji)电(dian)(dian)器(qi)(qi)有直流和(he)(he)交流两种。在线(xian)圈(quan)两端加(jia)上(shang)电(dian)(dian)压(ya)或(huo)(huo)通人电(dian)(dian)流,产生电(dian)(dian)磁(ci)力(li),当电(dian)(dian)磁(ci)力(li)大于弹簧(huang)反力(li)时(shi)(shi),吸动(dong)衔铁使(shi)常开(kai)常闭接(jie)点动(dong)作;当线(xian)圈(quan)的电(dian)(dian)压(ya)或(huo)(huo)电(dian)(dian)流下降或(huo)(huo)消失(shi)时(shi)(shi)衔铁释(shi)放,接(jie)点复位。 

热继电器

热(re)(re)继(ji)电(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)器(qi)(qi)主要(yao)是(shi)用于电(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)气(qi)设(she)备(bei)(主要(yao)是(shi)电(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)动(dong)机(ji)(ji))的(de)(de)(de)过(guo)负荷(he)保护。热(re)(re)继(ji)电(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)器(qi)(qi)是(shi)一种(zhong)利用电(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)流(liu)(liu)热(re)(re)效应原理工作的(de)(de)(de)电(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)器(qi)(qi),它具有(you)与电(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)动(dong)机(ji)(ji)容许过(guo)载特性(xing)相(xiang)(xiang)近的(de)(de)(de)反时(shi)限动(dong)作特性(xing),主要(yao)与接触器(qi)(qi)配合使(shi)用,用于对三相(xiang)(xiang)异步(bu)电(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)动(dong)机(ji)(ji)的(de)(de)(de)过(guo)负荷(he)和(he)断(duan)(duan)相(xiang)(xiang)保护三相(xiang)(xiang)异步(bu)电(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)动(dong)机(ji)(ji)在(zai)实(shi)际运行(xing)中(zhong),常会遇到(dao)因(yin)电(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)气(qi)或机(ji)(ji)械原因(yin)等(deng)引起的(de)(de)(de)过(guo)电(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)流(liu)(liu)(过(guo)载和(he)断(duan)(duan)相(xiang)(xiang))现象(xiang)。如(ru)果过(guo)电(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)流(liu)(liu)不(bu)严重,持(chi)续时(shi)间短,绕组不(bu)超过(guo)允(yun)许温(wen)升,这种(zhong)过(guo)电(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)流(liu)(liu)是(shi)允(yun)许的(de)(de)(de);如(ru)果过(guo)电(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)流(liu)(liu)情况(kuang)严重,持(chi)续时(shi)间较长(zhang),则会加快电(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)动(dong)机(ji)(ji)绝缘老化,甚至烧毁电(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)动(dong)机(ji)(ji),因(yin)此,在(zai)电(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)动(dong)机(ji)(ji)回路中(zhong)应设(she)置电(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)动(dong)机(ji)(ji)保护装置。常用的(de)(de)(de)电(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)动(dong)机(ji)(ji)保护装置种(zhong)类很多,使(shi)用最多、最普遍的(de)(de)(de)是(shi)双金属片式(shi)热(re)(re)继(ji)电(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)器(qi)(qi)。双金属片式(shi)热(re)(re)继(ji)电(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)器(qi)(qi)均为三相(xiang)(xiang)式(shi),有(you)带(dai)(dai)断(duan)(duan)相(xiang)(xiang)保护的(de)(de)(de)和(he)不(bu)带(dai)(dai)断(duan)(duan)相(xiang)(xiang)保护的(de)(de)(de)两种(zhong)。 

时间继电器

时(shi)间继(ji)电(dian)(dian)器在控制(zhi)电(dian)(dian)路中用(yong)(yong)于时(shi)间的控制(zhi)。其(qi)种(zhong)类很多,按其(qi)动作原理可分为(wei)电(dian)(dian)磁(ci)式(shi)(shi)、空(kong)气阻(zu)尼(ni)式(shi)(shi)、电(dian)(dian)动式(shi)(shi)和电(dian)(dian)子(zi)式(shi)(shi)等(deng),按延(yan)(yan)时(shi)方(fang)式(shi)(shi)可分为(wei)通电(dian)(dian)延(yan)(yan)时(shi)型(xing)(xing)和断电(dian)(dian)延(yan)(yan)时(shi)型(xing)(xing)。空(kong)气阻(zu)尼(ni)式(shi)(shi)时(shi)间继(ji)电(dian)(dian)器是利(li)用(yong)(yong)空(kong)气阻(zu)尼(ni)原理获得延(yan)(yan)时(shi)的,它(ta)由电(dian)(dian)磁(ci)机(ji)构(gou)、延(yan)(yan)时(shi)机(ji)构(gou)和触头系(xi)统3部分组成。电(dian)(dian)磁(ci)机(ji)构(gou)为(wei)直动式(shi)(shi)双E型(xing)(xing)铁心(xin),触头系(xi)统借用(yong)(yong)I-X5型(xing)(xing)微动开关,延(yan)(yan)时(shi)机(ji)构(gou)采用(yong)(yong)气囊式(shi)(shi)阻(zu)尼(ni)器。 

可靠性

1、环境对继电器可靠性的(de)影响:继电器工作在GB和SF下的(de)平均故障间(jian)隔时间(jian)最(zui)高,达(da)到(dao)820000h,而在NU环境下,仅60000h。

2、质量(liang)等(deng)(deng)级对继(ji)(ji)(ji)电器可(ke)靠性(xing)的(de)影(ying)响(xiang):当(dang)选用A1质量(liang)等(deng)(deng)级的(de)继(ji)(ji)(ji)电器时(shi),平均故障(zhang)间(jian)(jian)隔时(shi)间(jian)(jian)可(ke)达3660000h,而选用C等(deng)(deng)级的(de)继(ji)(ji)(ji)电器平均故障(zhang)间(jian)(jian)隔时(shi)间(jian)(jian)为(wei)110000,其间(jian)(jian)相差33倍,可(ke)见继(ji)(ji)(ji)电器的(de)质量(liang)等(deng)(deng)级对其可(ke)靠性(xing)能的(de)影(ying)响(xiang)非常大。

3、触(chu)点形(xing)(xing)式对继(ji)电(dian)(dian)(dian)器(qi)可(ke)(ke)靠(kao)性(xing)的(de)影响(xiang):继(ji)电(dian)(dian)(dian)器(qi)的(de)触(chu)点形(xing)(xing)式也会对其可(ke)(ke)靠(kao)性(xing)产生(sheng)影响(xiang),单掷型继(ji)电(dian)(dian)(dian)器(qi)的(de)可(ke)(ke)靠(kao)性(xing)都高于(yu)相同(tong)刀(dao)数的(de)双(shuang)掷型继(ji)电(dian)(dian)(dian)器(qi),同(tong)时随(sui)刀(dao)数的(de)增加可(ke)(ke)靠(kao)性(xing)逐渐降(jiang)低,单刀(dao)单掷继(ji)电(dian)(dian)(dian)器(qi)的(de)平均故障(zhang)间(jian)隔(ge)时间(jian)是四刀(dao)双(shuang)掷继(ji)电(dian)(dian)(dian)器(qi)的(de)5.5倍。

4、结构类(lei)型对继(ji)电器可(ke)靠性的影响:继(ji)电器结构类(lei)型共有24种,不同类(lei)型均对其可(ke)靠性产生(sheng)影响。

5、温(wen)(wen)度(du)对(dui)继(ji)电器(qi)可靠性(xing)的影响(xiang):继(ji)电器(qi)工作温(wen)(wen)度(du)范围(wei)在-25~70℃之(zhi)间(jian)。随着温(wen)(wen)度(du)的升高,继(ji)电器(qi)的平均故障间(jian)隔时间(jian)逐渐下降。

6、动作(zuo)速率对继(ji)(ji)电(dian)(dian)器可靠(kao)性的(de)影响:随着继(ji)(ji)电(dian)(dian)器动作(zuo)速率的(de)提高,平均故障间(jian)(jian)隔时(shi)间(jian)(jian)基本呈(cheng)指数型(xing)下降趋势。因此,若设计的(de)电(dian)(dian)路要(yao)(yao)求(qiu)继(ji)(ji)电(dian)(dian)器的(de)动作(zuo)速率非常高,那(nei)么在电(dian)(dian)路维修(xiu)时(shi)就(jiu)需要(yao)(yao)仔细检(jian)测继(ji)(ji)电(dian)(dian)器以便(bian)及时(shi)对它(ta)更(geng)换(huan)。

7、电(dian)(dian)(dian)流(liu)比(bi)(bi)对继(ji)电(dian)(dian)(dian)器可靠性(xing)的影响:所谓电(dian)(dian)(dian)流(liu)比(bi)(bi)是(shi)继(ji)电(dian)(dian)(dian)器的工作负(fu)载(zai)电(dian)(dian)(dian)流(liu)与额定负(fu)载(zai)电(dian)(dian)(dian)流(liu)之比(bi)(bi)。电(dian)(dian)(dian)流(liu)比(bi)(bi)对继(ji)电(dian)(dian)(dian)器的可靠性(xing)影响很大(da)(da)(da),尤其当(dang)电(dian)(dian)(dian)流(liu)比(bi)(bi)大(da)(da)(da)于(yu)0.1时(shi)(shi),平(ping)均(jun)故障间(jian)隔时(shi)(shi)间(jian)迅速下降,而电(dian)(dian)(dian)流(liu)比(bi)(bi)小于(yu)0.1时(shi)(shi),平(ping)均(jun)故障间(jian)隔时(shi)(shi)间(jian)基(ji)本不变,因此在电(dian)(dian)(dian)路设计时(shi)(shi)应选用额定电(dian)(dian)(dian)流(liu)较大(da)(da)(da)的负(fu)载(zai)以降低电(dian)(dian)(dian)流(liu)比(bi)(bi),这样(yang)可保证继(ji)电(dian)(dian)(dian)器乃至整个电(dian)(dian)(dian)路不因工作电(dian)(dian)(dian)流(liu)的波动而使可靠性(xing)降低。

继电器继电器继电器